Aug 17, 2022
The Impact of Loneliness and Social Isolation topic helps to support your achievement of the following Module 5 Objective: MO 14 covered in Chapter 13 and Module 6 Objective: MO 16 covered in Chapter 15:
MO 14: Describe adulthood (ages 25-65) psychosocial development of personality and social characteristics of intimacy and generativity. (Supports Course Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.)
MO 16: Describe psychosocial theories of late adulthood (ages 65 and beyond), activities in late adulthood, and the frail elderly. (Supports Course Outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.)
Do the following
Paragraph 2: Using the information in Chapter 15-Theories of Late Adulthood and Activities in Late Adulthood, answer the following questions
Paragraph 3: Apply what you have learned in this topic by answering the following questions:
Growth and development is an irreversible and constant increase in size, while development relates to changes in size, shape, and function. Thus, a person's growth and development begin during conception and end during death. Each process is structured in well-defined stages that are also affected by biological and environmental components. Thus, understanding the stages of development is instrumental design health care interventions for optimal developmental outcomes.
The stages of the developmental process are structured into eight phases. In particular, the development process begins in the prenatal phase, characterized by conception and other development phases starting from the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods (Berger, 2019). Both biological and environmental factors influence this stage, and the risk of complication and death is equally higher. Thus, to mitigate the risk of maternal mortality and the subsequent complication, various interventions related to pre-and post-natal care, control of the underlying medical condition, and free access to maternal care are some of the viable strategies to ensure successful birth outcomes.
Upon delivery, the next step includes infancy and toddlerhood. During these developmental stages, lasting between 1-2 years, the infant develops cognitively, physically, and socially (Berger, 2019). In particular, from an infant with little reflex to well develop reflexes and other significant milestones. During this phase, parental involvement in secure attachment, a sense of security, and intimacy affect the developmental outcomes. Besides, play activities are also instrumental in enabling the child to achieve the required developmental milestone across all three domains.
The third phase includes early and middle childhood. Unlike the toddler phase, early childhood is a period of exploration and increased independence gaining a sense of self. Equally, in late childhood, the growth spurt takes shape, preparing the child for the adolescent phase, and is often characterized by changes in the physical makeup and cognitive ability (Berger, 2019). Late childhood ends, and the most challenging phase, with immense impacts on the development process, is the adolescent stage. The rapid brain changes and the influence of hormones increase the risk and opportunities for teenagers (Mills & Anandakumar, 2020). In this phase, some habits develop that are either detrimental while some habits are equally beneficial. The need for social support both from peers and parental involvement act as a protective factor against poor developmental outcomes.
The last stage is adulthood. This stage is further classified into early, middle, and late adulthood. In each phase, the teenage transition from childhood and take up more significant societal roles and responsibilities (Berger, 2019). Besides, exploration and development of identity on the part are core aspects of early adulthood. In contrast, middle-late adulthood is mainly characterized by aging taking center stage, and psychological decline commences. The last phase of adulthood increases the risk of death due to various factors. In particular, Honarvar et al. (2020) noted elderly abuse and neglect (EAN) are common in the late adulthood phases resulting in poor quality of life. Besides, the aging process also increases the risk of diseases and poor quality of life.
The changes influence each developmental process in the biological, cognitive, and psychological changes. In particular, during infancy and toddlerhood, the biological and psychological domains are the early phases of development (Berger, 2019). However, as the child moves to the next stage, biological changes are marked by the increased complexity of the body function, brain changes, and psychological changes that require a difference in parenting styles and play activities (Yogman et al., 2018). In the teenage phase, the role of hormones and brain development is at the optimal stage. In this stage, risk-taking behaviors increase physical activities, and the need for autonomy and development of senses are equally higher. Finally, the maturity stages ensure that as one move toward adulthood, the biosocial, cognitive, and physical changes tend to decline, increasing the risk of poor health outcomes. Due to the differences across the three domains, the environment and biological factors strongly influence an individual's ability to move from one stage to another successfully.
In my late childhood, I was depressed and anxious for various reasons. In part, unlike my peers, my physical aspect had not fully developed, and most of the time, I felt that I was abnormal. Later, as a reserved student, I developed the habit of desiring to fit into the crowd and would do anything to gain my peers' approval. We moved to a different state during my fifteenth birthday, and my life took a different turn. In the absence of peer pressure, increased parental involvement in my life, and a positive social convoy, some habits changed. I ended up succeeding both academically and in my personal life. Understanding the after-mentioned experience has been enhanced based on the class reading, research, and course assignment. Thus, the key takeaways from the class will inform my parenting style in the future and also help me develop effective strategies to maintain optimal health during the late adulthood phase.
The developmental process occurs throughout the lifespan. One common theme across all stages is the influence of genetic and environmental factors in increasing the risk of mortality or wellness, resulting in prolonged life. In this case, for optimal growth and development, factors related to play, effective parenting, a safe environment, and nutrition are some of the main requirements needed to influence the developmental process.
Berger, K. S. (2019). Invitation to the life span. (4th ed.). Worth Publishers.
Honarvar, B., Gheibi, Z., Asadollahi, A., Bahadori, F., Khaksar, E., Rabiey Faradonbeh, M., & Farjami, M. (2020). The impact of abuse on the quality of life of the elderly: A population-based survey in Iran. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 53(2), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.210
Mills, K. L., & Anandakumar, J. (2020). The adolescent brain is awesome. Frontiers for Young Minds, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/frym.2020.00075
Yogman, M., Garner, A., Hutchinson, J., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2018). The power of play: A pediatric role in enhancing development in young children. Pediatrics, 142(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2058