Kidney Chronic Disease Sample Paper 2018


You are a healthcare provider who is preparing to meet with a patient who has recently been diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. You are tasked with explaining this disease and its treatment options to your patient.

To complete this assignment, do the following:

Research this disease using a minimum of 2 source(s). You can use your textbook for one of the sources. Choose the remaining sources from the GALE Virtual Reference Library provided on the Structure and Function of the Human Body library guide page.
In a minimum of 2 pages (not counting the references page), address the following:
Explain how chronic kidney disease develops and the potential causes.
Describe the treatment options that exist.
Include a references page at the end of your document, formatted using the APA guidelines, that lists your research sources.


Chronic Kidney Disease

The kidneys are bean shaped organs located in the retroperitoneal regions of the body. The primary functional and structural segment of the kidney is the nephron. It is charged with performing all the four fundamental processes responsible for altering the blood plasma that flows through the kidney: excretion, reabsorption, filtration, and secretion (Bomback & Bakris, 2011). This aids the body in controlling the volume of the different body fluid compartments, the removal of toxins, acid-base balance, the regulations of electrolyte concentrations, and the maintenance of fluid osmolality. Other functions that do not involve the nephron include the activation of the precursor of vitamin D to calcitriol, and the synthesis of the hormones rennin, and erythropoietin. There are numerous medical conditions that can impede the functioning of this organ: pyelonephritis, nephritic syndromes, acute kidney injury, kidney stones, cancer, however, the illness under discussion is chronic kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease is a state that describes the gradual loss of the kidneys’ function over a period of years or months and the progression of the damage might result in end-stage renal disease or kidney failure (Clark, 2004). There are various established causative agents of this ailment and they include high blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease, diabetes, glomerulo-nephritis, and certain risk factors such as genetics/family history. Generally, during the early stages there are usually no noticeable symptoms, however, during the advanced stages, an individuals may explicit the following signs: nausea and vomiting, leg swelling, lethargy, loss of appetite, hyperkalemia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalemia, metabolic acidosis, and the development of confusion. This disease may in turn result in debilitating complications such as anemia, heart disease, high blood pressure, and bone disease.

Statistically, this illness affects approximately 730 million individuals world-wide with the majority being the female population (336 million males and 417 million females); up to 1.2 million recorded deaths annually (Bomback & Bakris, 2011). Nonetheless, it is fundamental to note that, most of the death resulted from the consequent complications. It most commonly affects people from the South Asian region i.e. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka; and the black population and this is due to the increased risk of diabetes in the former and the high blood pressure in the latter. The ailment is normally associated with the ageing people, especially those ranging from the age 65 -74 years.

The diagnosis of this disease is primarily based on human family history, examination, and the urine dipstick in combination of the measurement of the serum creatinine level. The first step involves the health practitioner discussing and inquiring the patient’s family history and gathering other essential information that is relevant to the diagnosis. The questions asked include: alterations in urinary habits, intake of medication that may affect the functioning of the kidneys, likelihood of suffering from high blood pressure, and the possibility of a family member having any kidney ailments. This is normally followed by the carrying out of physical examinations that involve urine tests, blood tests, imaging tests, and the removal of a sample of the kidney for testing.

After a thorough diagnosis process, the doctor tends to treat the ailing individual depending on the underlying problem; however, it is also fundamental to note that chronic kidney disease does not have a cure. The treatment procedure involves slowing or controlling the cause and treating the arising complications. Regular follow-up tests are highly recommended at prescribed intervals to enable the proper observation of the progression of the illness. Nonetheless, on assessment and discovery that a person’s kidney is incapable of fluid and waste clearance, this phase is termed as the end-stage kidney disease, kidney dialysis and transplant is usually offered. The former refers to the artificial removal of extra fluid and waste products when the kidneys lack the ability to perform the function themselves. A machine tends to filter the blood or sometimes a catheter gets inserted into the abdomen and fills it with a dialysis solution that absorbs the waste. The latter involves the surgical removal of an unhealthy kidney and replacing it with a healthy one from a compatible donor. This will also require the recipient to continuously take medications throughout an individual’s life to prevent the body from rejecting the new organ.


Clark, C. (2004). The holistic nursing approach to chronic disease. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Bomback, A., & Bakris, G. (2011). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension essentials 2011. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

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