Drug Trafficking Sample Paper
Narco-Trafficking Sample Paper
Narco-Trafficking refers to the cultivation, distribution, and smuggling of illegal drugs across borders. The UNODC has been monitoring the market continuously, allowing them to have a clear understanding of the dynamics. Globally the consumption of heroin stands at approximately 80 metric tons, most of which are seized by the narcotics police in the Middle East and South-West Asia. In the same period, nearly 20 million global civilians consumed cocaine, with North America presenting forty percent of worldwide consumption (“Drug trafficking”, 2016). Moreover, the European Union countries consumed approximately a quarter of the total distributed amount. Therefore, the use between Europe and North America accounted for roughly eighty percent of the total consumed quantity in the market, estimated at $88 billion.
The focus of this piece is Colombia, Central America, and Mexico, which present as critical suppliers and consumers in the market. As a country, Colombia is responsible for approximately 43% of the total production of cocaine (“Drug trafficking”, 2016). Here Pablo Escobar served as the leading Cartel before his demise in 1993 and was replaced by Griselda Blanco, who was referred to as the Godmother of Cocaine before her death in the year 2012.
In Mexico, drug traffickers have been integrated directly into the country’s economy, with approximately 500 of the cities being directly involved with the trafficking of drugs. Moreover, an excess of 450,000 individuals is directly employed by the cartels showing the extent of the business (“Trapped: the truth behind narco-trafficking in Mexico | Research | The University of Sheffield”, 2020). Additionally, 3.2 million people are dependent on the funds made through the sale of drugs both locally and internationally. The central cartels in Mexico earn a whooping profit of approximately thirty billion US dollars annually with the money circulating in international banks; thus, avoid detection. The Sinaloa Cartel is primarily responsible for most of the trafficking of narcotics in the country. This shows the extent to which trafficking has been embedded in the Nation.
Some Mexican Citizens have been seeking asylum from their country due to their involvement in the drug industry. According to Dr. Peter Watt, Mexican Nationals seek refuge in England, evading the Cartels. However, the individuals considered ought to bare in-depth information regarding the trade of drugs, cultivation, and parties involved (“Trapped: the truth behind narco-trafficking in Mexico | Research | The University of Sheffield”, 2020). A key witness is considered to be an individual who has sufficient knowledge of the industry or has experience by being a dealer for a good number of years; thus, offer credible information. The information should have adequate details regarding, exchange of cash, storage facilities, murders, and dumping sites, and meeting spots. Such features were required in the case of Maria, who was seeking asylum due to her husband’s fear of persecution, who became entangled in the drug industry.
In recent years, the demand for drugs has risen in the US and across Europe, leading to Mexicans improving in their production as they serve as principal suppliers. During the same period, there were severe economic challenges in the country, leading to natives migrating to the United States seeking greener pastures. The result was the government taking control of the trade until the year 2000. New economic policies requiring more supply needed to be enhanced the workforce forcing the government to lose track of the organizations losing them to the cartels (“Trapped: the truth behind narco-trafficking in Mexico | Research | The University of Sheffield”, 2020). The financial instability gave room for the cartels to enter the government; thus, trapping the entire Nation in the narco-trafficking world.
The case of Maria presents the perfect scenario where she began to be assaulted emotionally and physically by her childhood sweetheart, who was drawn to the narcotics life by offering power, weapons, and financial stability. Maria had no problem with her present situation until her friend vanished. The partner of her friend was in a similar case to one of her husbands; thus, raising alarms. There were two occasions where she tried to escape, but within the countries, but the substantial reach of the cartels who were working together made it impossible. On both occasions, she was apprehended and returned to her husband, making the UK the best option for her. Pretending that she was headed for holiday, she left the country, and on the return date, the seat was empty as she had managed to secure residency.
The economic situation of the country shows levels to which people can go for sustenance. In reaching extents to which governments are taken over by cartels shows how impoverished the Nation was financially; thus, its vulnerability to various situations and circumstances. The country has been assisted financially, but the repercussions are enormous, forcing citizens to flee for their lives. Such measures can be avoided if organizations such as the United Nations can manage to step in and give financial support to the Nation allowing it to regain traction; therefore, dealing with the narcotics drug-lords adequately.
Central America has long served as a link between potential buyers in the North and the producers in South America. The role played has led to the formation of various criminal organizations, both local and transitional gangs. The Sinaloa Cartel, Zetas, Gulf Cartel, and Urabenos are leading transitional organizations that have made a name through operating in Central America (“How Drug Trafficking Operates, Corrupts in Central America”, 2017). These groups are in charge of making purchases from producers and distributing the produce to the buyers.
The significant cartels act as overseers to the other tire organizations in the countries. These second-tier criminal groups are generally in charge of the transportation and distribution of the drugs. The second-tier groups mainly consist of families baring long histories of illegal activities and human smuggling, giving them an upper hand when transporting narcotics. The Cachiros serve as the perfect example of a second-tier family.
Initially, the family served as cattle rustlers; they grew titles over the years, earning more respect. By September of the year 2013, the family was placed on the Kingpin list by the United States Treasury Department after it was established that they had accumulated approximately eight hundred million worth of assets. The assets were invested in mining licenses, African Palm plantations, prominent zoo-resort, and a local soccer team.
The tier two groups inflict immense damage in the drug trafficking world as they are capable of controlling the ground. The Cachiros manage to finance political parties slowly managing to control all would-be mayors and all the positions above (“How Drug Trafficking Operates, Corrupts in Central America”, 2017). Therefore, local investigations were easily undermined, the police being infiltrated, among other things, thus allowing them to invest and win government contracts without much opposition comfortably.
The trafficking of narcotics has had severe implications that have affected various sectors immensely. The corruption levels have skyrocketed over recent years due to the rise in the drug trade. According to calculations, the transportation network pockets approximately twelve million US dollars monthly in profits (“How Drug Trafficking Operates, Corrupts in Central America”, 2017). Moreover, trafficking in countries like Honduras makes an annual profit of roughly seven hundred thousand US dollars, equating to four percent of the total GDP. Such large sums of money account for social and political capital besides assisting the country economically.
Thousands of jobs have been established as a result of the industry. The majority of the posts are due to the illegitimate business. However, some are through legitimate companies that gained traction due to the existence of the narcotics industry (“Part II: Gangs, Deportation and Violence in Central America*”, 2018). The funding of political candidates and their parties gives the cartels freedom over economic developments and security issues. The ripple effect of the chain of cartels’ financial power helps them have prominent political and business families such as the Rosenthal’s.
The impunity levels have considerably risen as judges, police, and prosecutors have been bought off at their preferred cost. Legal processes are influenced by the beginning ensuring there is no positive outcome that would resolve from the allegations presented forward (“Part II: Gangs, Deportation and Violence in Central America*”, 2018). The Cachiros family serves as an exquisite example in this scenario since they were untouchable in Honduras as local journalists were filled with fear. The journalists had evidence of how much fear they have instilled upon the natives.
The transportation specialists, better known by the locals as the transportistas, have been directly involved in the increased violence in the region despite hiding their traces to the public’s eyes. According to the maps showing the violent incidences, most of the attacks happened on drug traffickers. Most of these routes are under the operation of the Cachiros in the Tocoa municipality, baring homicide rates of approximately a hundred per a hundred thousand natives.
Central America can be assisted through reconciliation with the United States schedule allowing them to gain assistance on their issues. The agreement will aid the nations in gaining training personnel allowing their military troops to obtain free training. The intelligence services would be beefed up assisting in the fight against narcotics, and the accessing of additional equipment which will be essential. However, the Nation’s plan does not coincide with the schedule set by the United States, especially regarding counternarcotics.
Additionally, the United States Treasury ought to play its part in the fight against narcotics. Initially, the insertion of the Cachiros to the kingpin list allowed for tides to turn against the group enabling their business to be hit. Furthermore, the Treasury added the Rosenthals to the list running their business as well. However, the process lacks transparency as the accused are not allowed to appeal and plead their case.
Transparency ought to be enhanced by allowing the accused cases to be heard before judgment is made. Going after the funds will additionally help extract all economic and political elites who stood to benefit directly from the existence of the criminal groups (“Part II: Gangs, Deportation and Violence in Central America*”, 2018). The elites have been directly responsible for opening doors for drug traffickers and organized criminals paving the way for the industry to grow. Therefore, these elites ought to be persecuted with vigor sending a message to all the sympathizers.
In the United States, the war against narcotics is lost in the attorney general office, which is ordinarily devoid of required resources. In the case of Guatemala, the office of the Attorney General has played a focal point in the transformation of justice in the country as it helped in the resignation of the president and his vice due to corruption cases. Such support does not only fall in the provision of witness protection services and better facilities but granting administrative assistance, especially when tackling cases involving the elite members of the society.
Drug trafficking. (2016). Retrieved 25 May 2020, from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/index.html
Trapped: the truth behind narco-trafficking in Mexico | Research | The University of Sheffield. (2020). Retrieved 25 May 2020, from https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/research/features/trapped-truth-behind-narco-trafficking-mexico
How Drug Trafficking Operates, Corrupts in Central America. (2017). Retrieved 25 May 2020, from https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/how-drug-trafficking-operates-corrupts-in-central-america/
Part II: Gangs, Deportation and Violence in Central America*. (2018). Retrieved 25 May 2020, from https://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/part-ii-gangs-deportation-and-violence-in-central-america/